By J. Y. F. Lau
This e-book is set the fundamental ideas that underlie severe pondering and creativity. nearly all of the content material is on serious considering in view that extra issues are evidently concerned and because they are often mentioned without difficulty and systematically. the previous couple of chapters are dedicated to creativity and study method, no longer normal the book’s plethora of festival. each one bankruptcy introduces a particular subject, often by way of introducing the proper theories at the side of real looking examples that express how the theories will be utilized. every one bankruptcy concludes with a collection of workouts whose ideas are specific on the rear of the publication. whereas the writing kind is purposefully casual, the presentation is entire, at the least with appreciate to the meant introductory point.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity: Think More, Think Better
To show that X is not a necessary condition for Y, we simply find a situation where Y is present but X is not. Examples: An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity: Think More, Think Better. F. Lau Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 33 34 NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS • Eating meat is not necessary for living a healthy life. There are plenty of healthy vegetarians. • Being a land animal is not necessary for being a mammal. Whales are mammals, but they live in the sea. In daily life, we often talk about necessary conditions, maybe not explicitly.
This definition is vague because it is unclear what considerable size means. But this is in itself not a good objection to the definition, because our concept of a ship is vague in exactly the same way. Defining a ship as a vessel longer than 30 meters will make the definition too precise and end up distorting the ordinary meaning of the word. 4 Avoid persuasive definitions Finally, definitions should also avoid inappropriate emotional connotations. A persuasive definition is a definition that attaches a positive or negative emotional meaning to a term when there is in fact no such association.
Helicopter -jetfighter flying machines A definition is too narrow if the definiens fails to include things to which the definiendum applies. In other words, the definition fails to include things that it should. Consider the definition of religion as any belief system that includes worshiping a god who created the universe. This definition is too narrow since it excludes religions that do not postulate a creator, such as Jainism and certain versions of Buddhism and Daoism. Daoism -^. f ^ ^ I religions X ^ /-—-s"\ f \ \ ^ ^ _ ^ belief systems that \^ * N < | worship a creator ^S Christianity Notice that a definition can be too wide and too narrow at the same time.