By John L. Provis, Jannie S. J. van Deventer
This is a cutting-edge file because of the paintings of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM within the interval 2007-2013. The document summarises learn up to now within the region of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a specific concentrate on the subsequent parts: binder layout and characterisation, toughness checking out, commercialisation, standardisation, and supplying a ancient context for this rapidly-growing learn field.
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Extra resources for Alkali Activated Materials: State-of-the-Art Report, RILEM TC 224-AAM
Infrared spectroscopy has also been applied [96–98], but the interpretation of spectral features does not always correlate well with the results of NMR experiments. In the context of geopolymerisation, the most important aspect of the existence of a distribution of silicate species is the variability in lability (and thus also reactivity) between the different species present. Operating in parallel with the effects of silicate oligomer formation in concentrated solutions are acid-base reactions; monomeric silica, Si(OH)4, is also known as ‘orthosilicic acid,’ and behaves as a polyprotic weak acid under alkaline conditions.
This provides a wealth of potential precursors for alkali activation, although suitable methods of treatment and industrial-scale production must still be developed. Chinese research has made extensive use of fly ash, blast furnace and phosphorus slags, metakaolin and other calcined clays, red mud, and coal gangues in alkali activation, in addition to development work in the areas of admixtures and fundamental chemistry applicable to many of these systems. The reuse of industrial solid waste in China is encouraged by government and taxation policy [159, 160]; products in which the content of industrial solid waste (excluding BFS) is more than 30 % are able to be sold tax-free .
L. Provis et al. 26 Fig. 3 Crystallisation isotherms for hydrated sodium metasilicate phases at 25 °C and ambient pressure, plotted from the tabulated data of Wills . The phase Na3HSiO4·5H2O, which is reported at relatively high Na2O and low SiO2 concentrations, is not depicted (Plot adapted from ) of hydroxide solutions, where the excess alkali reacts with atmospheric CO2. This is unsightly, but not always harmful to the structural integrity of the material. Efflorescence is generally more marked in the presence of Na than K in hydroxideactivated binders.