By J. W. Hopewell, W. Calvo, R. Jaenke, H. S. Reinhold, M. E. C. Robbins, E. M. Whitehouse (auth.), PD Dr. Wolfgang Hinkelbein, Dr. Gregor Bruggmoser, Prof. Dr. Hermann Frommhold, Prof. Dr. Michael Wannenmacher (eds.)
Biologists and radiotherapists current their experimental paintings and medical facts within the box of radiation accidents of ordinary tissues and organs. specific regard is payed to the relevance of organic mechanisms in scientific events. rules of radiation harm and mixed remedy toxicity in radio-chemotherapy are being defined. the most issues mentioned are the significance of microvasculature, time, doseand fractionation and components enhancing medical radioresponse for early andlate radiation results. Tissues and organs thought of during this quantity are mucosa and dermis, lung and middle, bladder and muscle, CNS and eye. unique difficulties of pediatric radiotherapy, TBI, IORT and moment malignacies also are mentioned.
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Extra resources for Acute and Long-Term Side-Effects of Radiotherapy: Biological Basis and Clinical Relevance
5 could be an artifact of the specialized procedure (with the DMIPS) used to measure cell survival, since dose-related changes were not seen in the neutron response. Therefore, at the same high level of cell survival, X-ray and neutron doses were similar. 5 \ 0 \ \ ~.... u.. 2 \ 0 1 \ 2 3 Dose (Gy) 4 5 Fig. 5. Typical experiment using V79 hamster cells in vitro irradiated with single doses of X-rays or neutrons. 6Gy, the dose-survival relationship conforms to a conventional LQ model. 6Gy, the LQ model substantially underpredicts the effect of X-rays.
1984). In a third organ, the kidney, a similar effect was seen, namely a differential recovery of colony-forming efficiency after neutrons or X-rays (Jen and Hendry 1993). The differential was also found for the time factor (during fractionation) for functional injury in the pig kidney (Robbins et al. 1991a). Hence three organ systems show a similar pattern of differential recovery after X-rays or neutrons using various endpoints. Regarding repopulation and LET, no significant differences have been noted in the rate of appearance and disappearance of skin reactions in rodents or in humans, or in survival times of rodents irradiated with LD50/3o doses of X-rays or neutrons (data reviewed by Hendry 1972).
I "0 >- ~ I "! 40 X (ii '0 20 ~ ? 1 (Gy) Fig. 4a,b. Total dose to the mouse lung needed for an increase in breathing rate by 20% compared with controls in half the subjects measured at 28 weeks (EDso, a) or total dose needed for mortality in half the subjects (LDso, b) at 44-48 weeks. ). Errors are SEM, within the data points if not shown. Although not significant in these studies, there is a trend towards a greater effect of low-dose X-ray fractionation compared with the LQ model. (Data from Parkins et al.