By T. M. Charlton
The amazing buildings of at the present time, resembling huge suspension bridges, are the results of clinical rules verified through the new iron age of the 19th century. The booklet is worried with an in depth and significant account of the advance and alertness of these rules (including statics and elasticity) via humans of exceptional expertise in utilized arithmetic and engineering. They have been, after all, customarily influenced by means of the calls for of the railway, building growth. one of the remarkable examples selected via the writer is Robert Stephenson's use of novel rules for the layout and erection of the Britannia tubular iron bridge over the Menai Straits. A background of the idea of constructions within the 19th Century is a uniquely complete account of a century of the improvement of the speculation; an account which skilfully blends the personalities and the nice works and that's enlivened through little-known debts of friendship and controversy.
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Extra info for A History of the Theory of Structures in the Nineteenth Century
Villarceau (1853) also considered Masonry arch 37 this approach but Heyman (1966) emphasises his ultimate firm rejection of it in favour of elementary statics as the basis of his rules for the design of masonry arch bridges which, according to Heyman, have never been superceded. Later in the nineteenth century, the emergence (ascribed to Navier) of the so-called 'middle third rule' for masonry structures was a consequence of appeal to theory of elasticity for homogenous materials. The rule is described in some detail by Salmon (1938) who includes Fuller's graphical analysis of masonry arches (1874), which was based upon it.
Therefore it appears that the tube may be considered as made continuous at B and Z>, but falling short of perfect continuity at C by a certain known amount. That statement is not strictly correct both with regard to the restoration of the conditions which full continuity would have afforded at B and D and with reference to the conditions at C being modified by 'a certain known amount'. The latter seems to have been a judicious estimate. Having regard, however, to the orders of magnitude involved and strains 24 Beam systems measured, it seems probable that the engineers were justified in their conclusions.
The effect was, however, observed by the middle of the century, for example by Roebling in 1855 at the time of the construction of his highly stiffened suspension bridge for carrying a railway over the Niagara (Pugsley, 1957). Also, the concept is suggested in an anonymous article (1860) within a detailed discussion of suspension bridge behaviour, including comparison with other kinds of bridge. Results of experiments on models are given, and in examining the results the author states: 'The other element of difference lies in the resistance of the chain itself to a change of position, a resistance very noticeable in a heavily weighted model.