Download A Glossary of Sociolinguistics. by Alan Cruse PDF

By Alan Cruse

This handy-size reference e-book includes the entire phrases more likely to be encountered in a semester's research of sociolinguistics. The definitions are transparent, concise and entire, and lots of examples are supplied. extra maps and diagrams supplement the textual content. hugely steered.

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For many linguists, these are confined to logical properties such as entailments. Some linguists, while accepting that certain aspects of the meaning of a word are more central than others, dispute the idea that a clear distinction can be drawn between information needed to account for the linguistic behaviour of a word and general knowledge about the referent of a word. 793 02 pages 001-202 48 31/3/06 10:19 Page 48 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS dimensions of (lexical) meaning The semantic properties of a word can be grouped under three main headings: descriptive meaning, expressive meaning, and evocative meaning.

Converse (lexical) Lexical converses are a species of opposite. Two expressions which are converses designate a given state of affairs or event from the perspective of two different participants. For instance ‘A is above B’ describes a spatial relationship between two entities A and B by locating A with reference to B; the same state of affairs is described by ‘B is below A’, but this time B is located with reference to A. The mutual entailment relation between ‘A is above B’ and ‘B is below A’, in which the arguments are reversed and above is replaced by below, establishes above and below as lexical converses.

Conceptual semantics A variety of componential semantics (see under semantic components) associated with the linguist Jackendoff. Jackendoff holds that meanings are essentially conceptual in nature, and that the meanings of sentences are conceptual complexes built up out of basic conceptual components. His system is particularly concerned with the mapping between syntactic structures and conceptual structures. He utilises a set of universal basic ontological categories, which includes such items as event, state, object, path, place, and property.

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